COMPILATION OF BAR EXAMS QUESTIONS IN ADMINISTRATIVE LAW
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1. One of the cardinal primary due process rights in administrative proceedings is that evidence must be “substantial.” “Substantial evidence” is:
a. less than a mere scintilla;
b. less than preponderant scintilla;
c. more than a glint of scintilla;
d. more than a mere scintilla.
2. A statutory provision requiring the President or an administrative agency to present the proposed implementing rules and regulations of a law to Congress which by itself or through a committee formed by it, retains a “right” or “power” to approve or disapprove such regulations before they may take effect, is a:
a. legislative encroachment;
b. legislative veto;
c. legislative oversight;
d. legislative scrutiny.
3. Which one of the enumeration below does not come under the Administrative Code definition of a “rule”:
a. agency statement of general applicability that implements or interprets a law;
b. fixes and describes the procedures in or practice requirements of, an agency;
c. includes memoranda and statements concerning internal administration;
d. an agency process for the formulation of a final order.
4. Under the Administrative Code, “adjudication” means:
a. whole or any part of any agency permit, certificate, or other form of permission, or regulation of the exercise of a right or privilege;
b. an agency process for the formulation of a final order;
c. agency process for the formulation, amendment, or repeal of a rule;
d. agency process involving the grant, renewal, denial, revocation or conditioning of a license.
5. The requirement of the Administrative Code on “public participation” is that, if not otherwise required by law, an agency shall:
a. in all cases, publish or circulate notices of proposed rules and afford interested parties the opportunity to submit their views prior to the adoption of any rule;
b. in all clear and proper cases, publish or circulate notices of proposed rules and afford interested parties the opportunity to submit their views prior to the adoption of any rule;
c. as far as practicable, publish or circulate notices of proposed rules and afford the party-list parties the opportunity to submit their views prior to the adoption of any rule;
d. as far as practicable, publish or circulate notices of proposed rules and afford interested parties the opportunity to submit their views prior to the adoption of any rule.
6. Under the Administrative Code, in the fixing of rates, no rules or final order shall be valid unless:
a. the proposed rates shall have been submitted to the U.P. Law Center for publication at least two weeks before the first hearing thereon;
b. the proposed rates shall have been published in the Official Gazette at least two weeks before the final hearing thereon;
c. the proposed rates shall have been published in a newspaper of general circulation at least two weeks before the first hearing thereon;
d. the proposed rates shall have been published in a newspaper of general circulation at least two weeks before the final hearing thereon.
7. In the judicial review of decisions of administrative agencies, the Administrative Code requires that the review shall be made:
a. on the basis of the pleadings taken as a whole;
b. on the basis of the record taken as a whole;
c. on the basis of the evidence taken as a whole;
d. on the basis of the memoranda taken as a whole.
8. In the judicial review of decisions of administrative agencies, the Administrative Code requires that, except when specifically provided otherwise by law:
a. the findings of law of agency when supported by substantial evidence, shall be final;
b. the findings of fact of the agency when supported by preponderant evidence, shall be final;
c. the findings of fact of the agency when supported by substantial evidence, shall be final;
d. the findings of law of the agency when supported by credible evidence, shall be final.
During his campaign sortie in Barangay Salamanca, Mayor Galicia was arrested at a PNP checkpoint for carrying highpowered firearms in his car. He was charged and convicted for violation of the COMELEC gun ban. He did not appeal his conviction and instead applied for executive clemency. Acting on the favorable recommendation of the Board of Pardons and Parole, the President granted him pardon. Is he eligible to run again for an elective position? Explain briefly. (5%)
To instill religious awareness in the students of Doña Trinidad High School, a public school in Bulacan, the Parent- Teacher’s Association of the school contributed funds for the construction of a grotto and a chapel where ecumenical religious services and seminars are being held after school hours. The use of the school grounds for these purposes was questioned by a parent who does not belong to any religious group. As his complaint was not addressed by the school officials, he filed an administrative complaint against the principal before the DECS. Is the principal liable? Explain briefly. (5%)
Congressman Nonoy delivered a privilege speech charging the Intercontinental Universal Bank (IUB) with the sale of unregistered foreign securities, in violation of R.A. 8799. He then filed, and the House of Representatives unanimously approved, a Resolution directing the House Committee on Good Government (HCGG) to conduct an inquiry on the matter, in aid of legislation, in order to prevent the recurrence of any similar fraudulent activity.
The HCGG immediately scheduled a hearing and invited the responsible officials of IUB, the Chairman and Commissioners of the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), and the Governor of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP). On the date set for the hearing, only the SEC Commissioners appeared, prompting Congressman Nonoy to move for the issuance of the appropriate subpoena ad testificandum to compel the attendance of the invited resource persons.
The IUB officials filed suit to prohibit HCGG from proceeding with the inquiry and to quash the subpoena, raising the following arguments:
a. The subject of the legislative investigation is also the subject of criminal and civil actions pending before the courts and the prosecutor’s office; thus, the legislative inquiry would preempt judicial action; (3%) and
b. Compelling the IUB officials, who are also respondents in the criminal and civil cases in court, to testify at the inquiry would violate their constitutional right against self-incrimination. (3%)
Are the foregoing arguments tenable? Reasons.
c. May the Governor of the BSP validly invoke executive privilege and, thus, refuse to attend the legislative inquiry? Why or why not? (3%)
Maximino, an employee of the Department of Education, is administratively charged with dishonesty and gross misconduct. During the formal investigation of the charges, the Secretary of Education preventively suspended him for a period of sixty (60) days. On the 60th day of the preventive suspension, the Secretary rendered a verdict, finding Maximino guilty, and ordered his immediate dismissal from the service.
Maximino appealed to the Civil Service Commission (CSC), which affirmed the Secretary’s decision. Maximino then elevated the matter to the Court of Appeals (CA). The CA reversed the CSC decision, exonerating Maximino. The Secretary of Education then petitions the Supreme Court (SC) for the review of the CA decision.
a. Is the Secretary of Education a proper party to seek the review of the CA decision exonerating Maximino? Reasons. (2%)
b. If the SC affirms the CA decision, is Maximino entitled to recover back salaries corresponding to the entire period he was out of the service? Explain your answer. (3%)
Angelina, a married woman, is a Division Chief in the Department of Science and Technology. She had been living with a married man, not her husband, for the last fifteen (15) years. Administratively charged with immorality and conduct prejudicial to the best interest of the service, she admits her live-in arrangement, but maintains that this conjugal understanding is in conformity with their religious beliefs. As members of the religious sect, Yahweh’s Observers, they had executed a Declaration of Pledging Faithfulness which has been confirmed and blessed by their Council of Elders. At the formal investigation of the administrative case, the Grand Elder of the sect affirmed Angelina’s testimony and attested to the sincerity of Angelina and her partner in the profession of their faith. If you were to judge this case, will you exonerate Angelina? Reasons. (3%)
Abdul ran and won in the May 2001, 2004 and 2007 elections for Vice-Governor of Tawi-Tawi. After being proclaimed Vice-Governor in the 2004 elections, his opponent, Khalil, filed an election protest before the Commission on Election. Ruling with finalty on the protest, the COMELEC declared Khalil as the duly elected Vice-Governor though the decision was promulgated only in 2007, when Abdul had fully served his 2004-2007 term and was in fact already on his 2007-2010 term as Vice Governor.
a. Abdul now consults you if the can still run for Vice-Governor of Tawi-Tawi in the forthcoming May 2010 election on the premise that he could not be considered as having served as Vice-Governor from 2004-2007
because he was not duly elected to the post, as he assumed office merely as a presumptive winner and that presumption was later overturned when COMELEC decided with finality that had lost in the May 2004 elections. What will be your advice? (3%)
b. Abdul also consults you whether his political party can validly nominate his wife as subtitute candidate for Vice-Mayor of Tawi-Tawi in May 2010 elections in case the COMELEC disqualifies him and denies due course to or cancels his certificate of candidacy in view of a false material representation therein.What will be your advice? (3%)
The 1st Legislative District of South Cotabato is composed of General Santos and three municipalities including Polomolok. During the canvassing proceedings before the District Board of Canvassers in connection with the 2007 congressional election, candidate MP objected to the certificate pf canvass for Polomolok on the ground that it was obviously manufactured, submitting as evidence the affidavit of a mayoralty candidate of Polomolok. The certificate of canvass for General Santos was likewise objected to by MP on the basis of the confirmed report of the local NAMFREL that 10 election returns from non-existent precincts were included in the certificate. MP moved that the certificate of canvass for General Santos be corrected to exclude the the result from the non-existent precincts. The District Board of Canvassers denied both objections and ruled to include the certificate of canvass. May MP appeal the rulings to the COMELEC? Explain. (6%)
On August 8, 2008 the Governor of Bohol died and Vice-Governor Cesar succeeded him by operation of law. Accordingly, Benito, the highest ranking member of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan was elevated to the position of Vice-Governor. By the elevation of Benito to the office of Vice-Governor, a vacancy in the Sangguniang Panlalawigan was created.
How should the vacancy be filed? (3%)
The Provincial Governor of Bataan requested the Department of Budget and Management (DBM) to release its Internal Revenue Allocation (IRA) of P100 million for the current budget year. However, the General Appropriations Act provided that the IRA may be released on Iy if the province meets certain conditions as determined by an Oversight Council created by the President.
a. Is this requirement valid?
b. The Provincial Governor is a party-mate of the President. May the Bataan Representative instead file a petition to compel the DBM to release the funds?
1. What is a quasi-judicial body or agency? 2.5%
Pedro Masipag filed with the Ombudsman a complaint against RTC Judge Jose Palacpac with violation of Article 204 of the Revised Penal Code for knowingly rendering an unjust judgment in Criminal Case No. 617. Judge Palacpac filed a motion with the Ombudsman to refer the complaint to the Supreme Court to determine whether an administrative aspect was involved in the said case. The Ombudsmanss denied the motion on the ground that no administrative case against Judge Palacpac relative to the decision in Criminal Case No. 617 was filed and pending in his office. State with reasons whether the Ombudsman’s ruling is correct. (4%)