BAR EXAMINATIONS MERCANTILE LAW 2014-2017

2017 BAR EXAMINATIONS
MERCANTILE LAW
November 19, 2017 8:00 A.M. – 12:00 N.N.
INSTRUCTIONS

1. This Questionnaire contains eleven (11) pages. Check and make sure that your Questionnaire has the correct number of pages. You may write on your Questionnaire as you answer the questions.

Read each question very carefully and write your answers in your Bar Examination Notebook in the same order of the questions. Answer the essay questions legibly, clearly, and concisely. Write your answers only on the front of every page of your Notebook. If the front pages are not sufficient, continue at the back of the first page and so on. Start every number on a separate page, but an answer to a sub-question under the same number may be written continuously on the same page and on the immediately succeeding pages until the answer is complete. Follow the numbering sequence of the Questionnaire in your answers.

2. Your answers should demonstrate your ability to analyze the facts, apply the pertinent laws and jurisprudence, and arrive at sound and logical conclusions. Answers must fully explain even if the questions do not expressly require explanations. A “Yes” or “No” answer sans explanation or discussion will not be given full credit.

3. Marking of your Notebook with your name or other identifying signs or symbols extraneous to the subject matter of the questions may be considered as cheating and may disqualify you.

Good luck!

YOU CAN BRING HOME THE QUESTIONNAIRE.

JUSTICE LUCAS P. BERSAMIN
Chairman
2017 Bar Examinations

I.

A.

Absolute Timber Co. (ATC) has been engaged in the logging business in lsabela. To secure one of its shipments of logs to be transported by Andok Shipping Co., ATC purchased a marine policy with an “all risks” provision. Because of a strong typhoon then hitting Northern Luzon, the vessel sank and the shipment of logs was totally lost. ATC filed its claim, but the insurer denied the claim on several grounds, namely: (1) the vessel had not been seaworthy; (2) the vessel’s crew had lacked sufficient training; (3) the improper loading of the logs on only one side of the vessel had led to the tilting of the ship to that side during the stormy voyage; and (4) the extremely bad weather had been a fortuitous event.

ATC now seeks your legal advice to know if its claim was sustainable. What is your advice? Explain your answer. (3%)

B.

The newly restored Ford Mustang muscle car was just released from the car restoration shop to its owner, Seth, an avid sportsman. Given his passion for sailing, he needed to go to a round-the-world voyage with his crew on his brand-new 180-meter yacht. Hearing about his coming voyage, Sean, his bosom friend, asked Seth if he could borrow the car for his next roadshow. Sean, who had been in the business of holding motor shows and promotions, proposed to display the restored car of Seth in major cities of the country. Seth agreed and lent the Ford Mustang to Sean. Seth further expressly allowed Sean to use the car even for his own purposes on special occasions during his absence from the country. Seth and Sean then went together to Bayad Agad Insurance Co. (BAIC) to get separate policies for the car in their respective names.

SAIC consults you as its lawyer on whether separate policies could be issued to Seth and Sean in respect of the same car.

(a) What is insurable interest? (2%)

(b) Do Seth and Sean have separate insurable interests? Explain Briefly your answer(3%)

II.

A.

Morgan, a lawyer, received a lot of diving and other water sports equipment as payment of his professional fees by Dennis, his client in a child custody case. Dennis owned a diving and water sports dealership in Anilao, Batangas. Morgan decided to name Dennis as entrustee because he did not have any experience in selling such specialized sports equipment. They executed a trust receipt agreement, with Morgan as entruster and Dennis as entrustee.

Before the sports equipment could be sold, a strong typhoon hit Batangas. Anilao and other parts of Batangas experienced power outage. Taking advantage of the total darkness, unidentified thieves destroyed the padlocks of the establishment of Dennis, and carted off the equipment inside.

Morgan demanded that Dennis pay the value of the stolen equipment, but the latter refused on the ground that he also had suffered from the effects of the typhoon, and insisted that the cause of the loss was a fortuitous event or force majeure.

Is the justification of Dennis warranted? Explain your answer. (4%)

B.

Safe Warehouse, Inc. (Safe) issued on various dates negotiable warehouse receipts to Peter, Paul and Mary covering certain goods deposited by the latter with the former. Peter, Paul and Mary then negotiated and endorsed the warehouse receipts to Cyrus, Magnus and Charles upon payment by the latter of valuable consideration for the warehouse receipts. Cyrus, Magnus and Charles were not aware of, nor were they parties to any irregularity or infirmity affecting the title or the face of the warehouse receipts.

On due dates of the warehouse receipts, Cyrus, Magnus and Charles demanded that Safe surrender the goods to them. Safe refused because its warehouseman’s claim must first be paid. Cyrus, Magnus and Charles refused to pay, and insisted that such claim was the liability of Peter, Paul and Mary.

(a) What is a warehouseman’s claim? (3%)

(b) Is Safe’s refusal to surrender the goods to Cyrus, Magnus and Charles legally justified? Explain your answer. (3%)

III.

A.

Data Realty, Inc. (DRI) was engaged in realty development. The family of Matteo owned 100°/o of the capital stock of ORI. Matteo was also the President and Chairman of the Board of Directors. Other members of Matteo’s family held the major positions in ORI. Because of a nasty takeover fight with D&E Realty Co., Inc. (D&E), another realty developer, for the control of a smaller realty company with vast landholdings, ORI and D&E engaged in an expensive litigation that eventually led to a money judgment being rendered in favor of D&E.

Meantime, DRI, facing inability to pay its liabilities as they fall due but still holding substantial assets, filed a petition for voluntary rehabilitation. Trying to beat the consequences of rehabilitation proceedings, D&E moved in the trial court for the issuance of a writ of execution. The trial court also happened to be the rehabilitation court. The writ of execution was issued.

Serving the writ of execution, Merto, the court sheriff who had just passed his Credit Transactions subject in law school, garnished Matteo’s bank accounts, and levied his real properties, including his house and lot in Makati.

Are the garnishment and levy of Matteo’s assets lawful and proper? Explain your answer. (4%)

B.

Sid used to be the majority stockholder and President of Excellent Corporation (Excellent). When Meridian Co., Inc. (Meridian), a local conglomerate, took over control and ownership of Excellent, it brought along its team of officers. Sid thus became a minority stockholder and a minority member of the Board of Directors. Excellent, being the leading beverage manufacturer in the country, became the monopoly when Meridian’s own beverage business was merged with Excellent’s, thereby making Excellent virtually the only beverage manufacturer in the country.

Left out and ignored by the management, Sid became a fiscalizer of sorts, questioning during the Board meetings the direction being pursued by Excellent’s officers.

Ultimately, Sid demanded the inspection of the books and other corporate records of Excellent. The management refused to comply, saying that his right as a minority stockholder has been much reduced.

State under what conditions may Sid properly assert his right to inspect the books and other corporate records of Excellent. Explain your answer. (3%)

IV.

Procopio, a Director and the CEO of Parisian Hotel Co., Inc. (Parisian), was charged along with other company officials with several counts of estafa in connection with the non-remittance of SSS premiums the company had collected from its employees. During the pendency of the cases, Parisian filed a petition for rehabilitation. The court, finding the petition to be sufficient in form and substance, issued a commencement order together with a stay or suspension order.

Citing the commencement order, Procopio and the other officers facing the criminal charges moved to suspend the proceedings in the estafa cases.

(a) What is a commencement order, and what is the effect of its issuance? Explain your answer. (4%)

(b) Suppose you are the trial judge, will you grant the motion to suspend of Procopio, et al.? Explain your answer. (4%)

V.

A.

Under the Nell Doctrine, so called because it was first pronounced by the Supreme Court in the 1965 ruling in Nell v. Pacific Farms, Inc. (15 SCRA 415), the general rule is that where one corporation sells or otherwise transfers all of its assets to another corporation, the latter is not liable for the debts and liabilities of the transferor.

State the exceptions to the Nell Doctrine. (4%)

B.

Santorini Corporation (Santorini) was in dire straits. In order to firm up its financial standing, it agreed to entertain the merger and takeover offer of Proficient Corporation (Proficient), the leading company in their line of business. Erica, the major stockholder of Santorini, strongly opposed the merger and takeover. The matter of the merger and takeover by Proficient was included in the agenda of the next meeting of Santorini’s Board of Directors. However, owing to Erica’s serious illness that required her to seek urgent medical treatment and care in Singapore, she failed to attend the meeting and was consequently unable to cast her vote. The Board of Directors approved the merger and takeover. At the time of the meeting, Santorini had been in the red for a number of years owing to its recurring business losses and reverses.

Erica seeks your legal advice regarding her right as a stockholder opposed to the corporate action. Explain your answer. (4%)

C.

Samito is the President and a Director of Lucky Bank (Lucky}, a commercial bank holding its main office in Makati. His brother, Othello, owned a big fishing business based in Malabon. Othello applied for a loan of PSO Million with Lucky. Othello followed the ordinary banking procedures in all the stages of the processing of his application. When required, he made the necessary arrangements to guarantee the loan. Thus, in addition to the real estate mortgage, Othello executed a joint and solidary suretyship, issued postdated checks, and submitted all other requirements prescribed by Lucky.

When the loan application was about to be approved and the proceeds released, BG Company, a keen competitor of Othello in the fishing industry, wrote to the Board of Directors and the management of Lucky questioning the loan on the ground of conflict of interest due to Samito and Othello being brothers, citing the legal restriction against bank exposure of directors, officers, stockholders or their related interests (DOSRI).

(a) What are the three restrictions imposed by law on DOSRI transactions? (4%)

(b) Is BG Company’s opposition based on conflict of interest and violation of the restrictions on DOSRI transactions legally and factually correct? Explain your answer. (4%)

VI.

A.

Hortencio owned a modest grocery business in Laguna. Because of the economic downturn, he incurred huge financial liabilities. He remained afloat only because of the properties inherited from his parents who had both come from landed families in Laguna. His main creditor was Puresilver Company (Puresilver), the principal supplier of the merchandise sold in his store. To secure his credit with Puresilver, he executed a real estate mortgage with a dragnet clause involving his family’s assets worth several millions of pesos.

Nonetheless, Hortencio, while generally in the black, now faces a situation where he is unable to pay his liabilities as they fall due in the ordinary course of business. What will you advise him to do to resolve his dire financial condition? Explain your answer. (5%)

B.

Wyatt, an internet entrepreneur, engaged in a sideline business of creating computer programs for selected clients on a per project basis and for servicing basic computer problems of his friends and family members. His main job was being an IT consultant at Futurex Co., a local computer company.

Because of his ill-advised investments in the stock market and the fraud perpetrated against him by his trusted confidante, Wyatt was already drowning in debt, that is, he had far more liabilities than his entire assets.

What legal recourse remained available to Wyatt? Explain your answer. (5%)

VII.

A.

Virtucio was a composer of llocano songs who has been quite popular in the llocos Region. Pascuala is a professor of music in a local university with special focus on indigenous music. When she heard the musical works of Virtucio, she purchased a CD of his works. She copied the CD and sent the second copy to her Music instructions for the class to listen to the CD and analyze the works of Virtucio.

Did Pascuala thereby infringe Virtucio’s copyright? Explain your answer. (4%)

B.

Super Biology Corporation (Super Biology) invented and patented a miracle medicine for the cure of AIDS. Being the sole manufacturer, Super Biology sold the medicine at an exorbitant price. Because of the sudden prevalence of AIDS cases in Metro Manila and other urban areas, the Department of Health (DOH) asked Super Biology for a license to produce and sell the AIDS medicine to the public at a substantially lower price. Super Biology, citing the huge costs and expenses incurred for research and development, refused.

Assuming you are asked your opinion as the legal consultant of the DOH, discuss how you will resolve the matter. (4%)

VIII.

A.

Flora, a frequent traveller, found a purse concealed between the cushions of a large sofa inside the VIP lounge in NAIA while she was waiting for her flight to be called. Inside the purse was a very valuable diamond-studded necklace. She decided not to turn over the purse to the airport management, and instead to keep it. On her return from her travels, she had a dependable jeweller appraise the necklace, and the latter told her that the necklace was easily worth at least ₱5,000,000.00 in the open market. To test the appraisal, she pawned the necklace for ₱2,000,000.00. She then deposited the entire amount in her checking account with Metro Bank. Promptly, Metro Bank reported the transaction to the Anti-Money Laundering Council (AMLC).

Given that her appropriation of the necklace was theft, may Flora be successfully prosecuted for money laundering? Explain briefly your answer. (4%)

B.

Prosperous Bank is a domestic bank with head office in Makati. It handles the banking requirements of thousands of clients.

The AMLC initiated a discreet investigation of the financial transactions of Lorenzo, a suspected drug trafficker based in Naga City. The intelligence group of the AMLC, in coordination with the counterpart group from the PDEA and the NBI, gathered ample evidence establishing Lorenzo’s unlawful drug activities. The AMLC had probable cause that his deposits and investments in various banks, including Prosperous Bank, were related to money laundering.

Accordingly, the AMLC now transmits to Prosperous Bank a formal demand to allow its agents to examine the banking transactions of Lorenzo, but Prosperous Bank refuses the demand.

Is Prosperous Bank’s refusal justified? Explain your answer. (4%)

IX.

A.

Alfred issued a check for ₱1,000.00 to Benjamin, his friend, as payment for an electronic gadget. The check was drawn against Alfred’s account with Good Bank. Benjamin then indorsed the check specially in favor of Cesar. However, Cesar misplaced the check. Dexter, a dormmate of Cesar, found the check, altered its amount to ₱91,000.00, and forged Cesar’s indorsement by way of a blank indorsement in favor of Felix, a known jeweler. Felix then caused the deposit of the check in his account with Solar Bank. As collecting bank, Solar Bank stamped “all previous indorsements guaranteed” on the check. Seeing such stamp of the collecting bank, Good Bank paid the amount of ₱91,000.00 on the check.

May Good Bank claim reimbursement from Alfred? Explain your answer. (4%)

B.

In 2006, Donald, an American temporarily residing in Cebu City, issued to Rhodora a check for $50,000.00 drawn against Wells Fargo Bank with offices in San Francisco, California. Rhodora negotiated the check and delivered it to Yaasmin, a Filipina socialite who frequently travelled locally and internationally. Because of her frequent travels, Yaasmin misplaced the check. It was only 11 years later on, in 2017, when she found the check inside a diary kept in her vault in her Hollywood, California house.

Discuss and explain the rights of Yaasmin on the check. (4%)

X.

Wisconsin Transportation Co., Inc. (WTC) owned and operated an inter-island de luxe bus service plying the Manila-Batangas-Mindoro route. Three friends, namely: Aurelio, Jerome and Florencio rode on the same WTC bus from Manila bound for Mindoro. Aurelio purchased a ticket for himself. Jerome, being a boyhood friend of the bus driver, was allowed a free ride by agreeing to sit during the trip on a stool placed in the aisle. Florencio, already penniless after spending all of his money on beer the night before, just stole a ride in the bus by hiding in the on-board toilet of the bus.

During the trip, the bus collided with another bus coming from the opposite direction. The three friends all suffered serious physical injuries.

What are WTC’s liabilities, if any, in favor of Aurelio, Jerome and Florencio? Explain your answer. (4%)

XI.

TRUE or FALSE – Explain briefly your answer.

(a) A conviction under the Trust Receipts Law shall bar a prosecution for estafa under the Revised Penal Code. (2%)

(b) The term capital in relation to public utilities under Sec. 11, Art. XII of the 1987 Constitution refers to the total outstanding capital stock comprising both common and non-voting preferred shares. (2%)

(c) Forgery is a real defense but may only be raised against a holder not in due course. (2%)

(d) News reports are not copyrightable. (2%)

(e) The law on life insurance prohibits double insurance. (2%)

XII.

Onassis Shipping, Inc. (Onassis) operated passenger vessels and cargo trucks, and offered its services to the general public. In line with its vision and mission to protect the environment, Go-Green Asia (Go-Green), an NGO affiliated with Greenpeace, entered into a contract with Onassis whereby Go-Green would operate with its own crew the MN Dolphin, an ocean-going passenger vessel of Onassis.

While on its way to Palawan carrying Go-Green’s invited guests who were international and local observers desirous of checking certain environmental concerns in the area, the MN Dolphin encountered high waves and strong winds caused by a typhoon in the West Philippine Sea. The rough seas led to serious physical injuries to some of the guests.

Discuss the liabilities of Onassis and Go-Green to the passengers of the M/V Dolphin. Explain briefly your answer. (3%)

-NOTHING FOLLOWS-

2016 BAR EXAMINATIONS
MERCANTILE LAW
November 20, 2016 8:00 A.M. – 12:00 P.M.
INSTRUCTIONS

1. This Questionnaire contains nine (9) pages. Check the number of pages and make sure it has the correct number of pages and their proper numbers.

All the items have to be answered within.four (4) hours. Since there are twenty (20) questions, you have 12 minutes to answer each question, and 6 minutes to answer each sub-question. You may write on the Questionnaire for notes relating to the questions.

Read each question very carefully and write your answers in your Bar Examination Notebook in the same order the questions are posed. Write your answers only on the front of every sheet in your Notebook. If not sufficient, then start with the back page of the first sheet and thereafter. Note well the allocated percentage points for each number, question, or sub-question. In your answers, use the numbering system in the questionnaire.

2. Answer the Essay questions legibly, clearly, and concisely. Start each number on a separate page. An answer to a sub-question under the same number may be written continuously on the same page and the immediately succeeding pages until completed.

Your answer should demonstrate your ability to analyze the facts, apply the pertinent laws and jurisprudence, and arrive at a sound or logical conclusion. Always support your answer with the pertinent laws, rules, jurisprudence, and the facts.

A mere “Yes” or “No” answer without any corresponding explanation or discussion will not be given full credit. Thus, always briefly but fully explain your answers although the question does not expressly ask for an explanation. Do not re-write or repeat the question in your Notebook.

3. Make sure you do not write your name or any extraneous note/s or distinctive markingls on your Notebook that can serve as an identifying mark/s (such as names that are not in the given questions, prayers, or private notes to the Examiner). Writing, leaving, or making any distinguishing or identifying mark in the exam Notebook is considered cheating and can disqualify you.

YOU CAN BRING HOME THE QUESTIONNAIRE.

JUSTICE PRESBITERO J. VELASCO, JR.
Chairman
2016 Bar Examinations

I

What does “doing business in the Philippines” under the Foreign Investments Act of 1991 mean? (5%)

II

Jason is the proud owner of a newly-built house worth PS million. As a protection against any possible loss or damage to his house, Jason applied for a fire insurance policy thereon with Shure Insurance Corporation (Shure) on October 11, 2016 and paid the premium in cash. It took the company a week to approve Jason’s application. On October 18, 2016, Shure mailed the approved policy to Jason which the latter received five (5) days later. However, Jason’s house had been razed by fire which transpired a day before his receipt of the approved policy. Jason filed a written claim with Shure under the insurance policy. Shure prays for the denial of the claim on the ground that the theory of cognition applies to contracts of insurance.

Decide Jason’s claim with reasons. (5%)

III

ABC Appliances Corporation (ABC) is a domestic corporation engaged in the production and sale of televisions and other appliances. YYY Engineers, a Taiwanese company, is the manufacturer of televisions and other appliances from whom ABC actually purchases appliances. From 2000, when ABC started doing business with YYY, it has been using the mark “TTubes” in the Philippines for the television units that were bought from YYY. In 2015, YYY filed a trademark application for “TTubes.” Later, ABC also filed its application. Both claim the right over the trademark “TTubes” for television products. YYY relies on the principle of “first to file” while ABC involves the “doctrine of prior use.”

[a] Does the fact that YYY filed its application ahead of ABC mean that YYY has the prior right over the trademark? Explain briefly. (2.5%)

[b] Does the prior registration also mean a conclusive assumption that YYY Engineers is in fact the owner of the trademark “TTubes?” Briefly explain your answer. (2.5%)

IV

X’s “MINI-ME” burgers are bestsellers in the country. Its “MINI-ME” logo, which bears the color blue, is a registered mark and has been so since the year 2010. Y, a competitor ofX, has her own burger which she named “ME-TOO” and her logo thereon is printed in bluish-green. When X sued Y for trademark infringement, the trial court ruled in favor of the plaintiff by applying the Holistic Test. The court held that Y infringed on X’s mark since the dissimilarities between the two marks are too trifling and frivolous such that Y’s “ME-TOO,” when compared to X’s “MINI-ME,” will likely cause confusion among consumers.

Is the application of the Holistic Test correct? (5%)

V

MS Brewery Corporation (MS) is a manufacturer and distributor of the popular beer “MS Lite.” It faces stiff competition from BA Brewery Corporation (BA) whose sales of its own beer product, “BA Lighter,” has soared to new heights. Meanwhile, sales of the “MS Lite” decreased considerably. The distribution and marketing personnel of MS later discovered that BA has stored thousands of empty bottles of “MS Lite” manufactured by MS in one of its warehouses. MS filed a suit for unfair competition against BA before the Regional Trial Court (RTC). Finding a connection between the dwindling sales of MS and the increased sales of BA, the RTC ruled that BA resorted to acts of unfair competition to the detriment of MS. Is the RTC correct? Explain. (5%)

VI

Nautica Shipping Lines (Nautica) bought a second hand passenger ship from Japan. It modified the design of the bulkhead of the deck of the ship to accommodate more passengers. The ship sunk with its passengers in Tablas Strait due to heavy rains brought by the monsoon. The heirs of the passengers sued Nautica for its liability as a common carrier based on the reconfiguration of the bulkhead which may have compromised the stability of the ship. Nautica raised the defense that the monsoon is a fortuitous event and, at most, its liability is prescribed by the Limited Liability Rule. Decide with reasons. (5%)

VII

A railroad track of the Philippine National Railway (PNR) is located near a busy intersection of Puyat Avenue and Osmefia Highway. One afternoon, the intersection was heavily congested, as usual. Juan, the driver of a public utility jeepney (PUJ), drove onto the railroad tracks but could go no farther because of the heavy traffic at the intersection. After the jeepney stopped right on the railroad track, it was hit and overturned by a PNR train, resulting in the death of Kim, a passenger of the PUJ, and injuries to Juan and his other passengers. Juan, the injured passengers and Kim’s family sued the PNR for damages for its negligence. It was established that the steel pole barrier before the track was broken, and that the PNR had the last clear chance of avoiding the accident. On the other hand, the PNR raised the defense that the track is for the exclusive use of the train and that motorists are aware that it is negligence per se to stop their vehicles on the tracks. Decide the case and explain. (5%)

VIII

In 2015, Total Bank (Total) proposed to sell to Royal Bank (Royal) its banking business for P 10 billion consisting of specified assets and liabilities. The parties reached an eventual agreement, which they termed as “Purchase and Assumption (P & A) Agreement,” in which Royal would acquire Total’s specified assets and liabilities, excluding contingent claims, with the further stipulation that it should be approved by the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (BSP). BSP imposed the condition that Total should place in escrow Pl billion to cover for contingent claims against it. Total complied. After securing the approval of the BSP, the two banks signed the agreement. BSP thereafter issued a circular advising all bank and non-bank intermediaries that effective January 1, 2016, “the banking activities of Total Bank and Royal Bank have been consolidated and the latter has carried out their operations since then.”

[a] Was there a merger and consolidation of the two banks in point of the Corporation Code? Explain. (2.5%)

[b] What is meant by a de facto merger? Discuss. (2.5%)

IX

X insured his life for P20 million. X, plays golf and regularly exercises everyday, hence is considered in good health. He did not know, however, that his frequent headache is really caused by his being hypertensive. In his application form for a life insurance for himself, he did not put a check to the question if he is suffering from hypertension, believing that because of his active lifestyle, being hypertensive is a remote possibility. While playing golf one day, X collapsed at the fairway and was declared dead on arrival at the hospital. His death certificate stated that X suffered a massive heart attack.

[a] Will the beneficiary of X be entitled to the proceeds of the life insurance under the circumstances, despite the non-disclosure that he is hypertensive at the time of application? (2.5%)

[b] IfX died in an accident instead of a heart attack, would the fact of X’s failure to disclose that he is hypertensive be considered as material information? (2.5%)

X

After securing a Pl million loan from B, A drew in B’s favor a bill of exchange with C as drawee. The bill reads: “October 1, 2016. Pay to the order of B the sum of P1 million. To: C (drawee). Signed, A.” A then delivered the bill to B who, however, lost it. It turned out that it was stolen by D, B’s brother. D lost no time in forging B’s signature and negotiated it to E who acquired it for value and in good faith.

May E recover on the bill from C, the drawee? Explain. (5%)

XI

Royal Links Golf Club obtained a loan from a bank which is secured by a mortgage on a titled lot where holes 1, 2, 3 and 4 are located. The bank informed the Board of Directors (Board) that if the arrearages are not paid within thirty (30) days, it will extra-judicially foreclose the mortgage. The Board decided to offer to the members 200 proprietary membership shares, which are treasury shares, at the price of P175,000.00 per share even when the current market value is P200,000.00.

In behalf and for the benefit of the corporation, Peter, a stockholder, filed a derivative suit against the members of the Board for breach of trust for selling the shares at P25,000.00, lower than its market value, and asked for the nullification of the sales and the removal of the board members. Peter claims the Club incurred a loss of PS million. The Board presented the defense that in its honest belief any delay in the payment of the arrearages will be prejudicial to the Club as the mortgage on its assets will be foreclosed and the sale at a lower price is the best solution to the problem. Decide the suit and explain. (5%)

XII

X owns 10,000 shares in Z Telecoms Corp. As he is in immediate need of money, he offered to sell all his shares to his friend, Y, at a bargain price. Upon receipt of the purchase price from Y, X proceeded to indorse in blank the certificates of shares and delivered these to Y. The latter then went to the corporate secretary of Z Telecoms Corp. and requested the transfer of the shares in his name. The corporate secretary refused since X merely indorsed the certificates in blank to Y. According to the corporate secretary, the certificates should have been specifically indorsed to the purchaser, Y. Was the corporate secretary justified in declining Y’s request? Discuss. (5%)

XIII

C Corp. is the direct holder of 10% of the shareholdings in U Corp., a nonlisted (not public) firm, which in turn owns 62% of the shareholdings in H Corp., a publicly listed company. The other principal stockholder in H Corp. is C Corp. which owns 18% of its shares. Meanwhile, the majority stocks in U Corp. are owned by B Corp. and V Corp. at 22% and 30%, respectively. B Corp. and V Corp. later sold their respective shares in U Corp. to C Corp., thereby resulting in the increase of C Corp.’s interest in U Corp., whether direct or indirect, to more than 50%.

[a] Explain the Tender Offer Rule under the Securities Regulation Code. (2.5%)

[b] Does the Tender Offer Rule apply in this case where there has been an indirect acquisition of the shareholdings in H Corp. by C Corp.? Discuss. (2.5%)

XIV

X, a government official, has a number of bank accounts in T Bank containing millions of pesos. He also opened several trust accounts in the same bank which specifically covered the placement and/or investment of funds. X was later charged with graft and corruption before the Sandiganbayan (SB) by the Ombudsman. The Special Prosecutor filed a motion praying for a court order authorizing it to look into the savings and trust accounts of X in T Bank. X opposed the motion arguing that the trust accounts are not “deposits” under the Law on Secrecy of Bank Deposits (Rep. Act No. 1405). Is the contention of X correct? Explain. (5%)

XV

ABC Corp. is engaged in the pawnshop business involving cellphones, laptops and other gadgets of value. In order to expand its business and attract investors, it offered to any person who invests at least Pl 00,000.00 a “Promissory Note” where it obligated itself to pay the holder a 50% return on investment within one month. Due to the attractive offer, many individuals invested in the company but not one of them was able to realize any profit after one month.

Has ABC Corp. violated any law with its scheme? Explain. (5%)

XVI

Henry is a board director in XYZ Corporation. For being the “fiscalizer” in the Board, the majority of the board directors want him removed and his shares sold at auction, so he can no longer participate even in the stockholders’ meetings. Henry approaches you for advice on whether he can be removed as board director and stockholder even without cause. What is your advice? Explain “amotion” and the procedure in removing a director. (5%)

XVII

PJ Corporation (PJ) obtained a loan from ABC Bank (ABC) in the amount of P10 million for the purchase of 100 pieces of ecodoors. Thereafter, a Letter of Credit was obtained by PJ against such loan. The beneficiary of the Letter of Credit is Scrap Metal Corp. (Scrap Metal) in Beijing, China. Upon arrival of 100 pieces of ecodoors, PJ executed a Trust Receipt in favor of ABC to cover for the value of the ecodoors for its release to PJ. The terms of the Trust Receipt is that any proceeds from the sale of the ecodoors will be delivered to ABC as payment. After the ecodoors were sold, PJ, instead of paying ABC, used the proceeds of the sale to order from Scrap Metal another 100 pieces of ecodoors but using another bank to issue a new Letter of Credit fully covered by such proceeds.

PJ refused to pay the proceeds of the sale of the first set of ecodoors to ABC, claiming that the ecodoors that were delivered were defective. It then instructed ABC not to negotiate the Letter of Credit that was issued in favor of Scrap Metal.

[a] Explain what is a “Letter of Credit” as a financial device and a “Trust Receipt” as a security to the Letter of Credit. (2.5%)

[b] As counsel of ABC, you are asked for advice on whether or not to grant the instruction of PJ. What will be your advice? (2.5%)

XVIII

B Bank, a large universal bank, regularly extends revolving credit lines to business establishments under what it terms as socially responsible banking and private business partnership relations. All loans that are extended to clients have a common “Escalation Clause,” to wit: “B Bank hereby reserves its right to make successive increases in interest rates in accordance with the bank’s adopted policies as approved by the Monetary Board; Provided that each successive increase shall be with the written assent of the depositor.”

[a] X, a regular client of the bank, contends that the “Escalation Clause” is unfair, unconscionable and contrary to law, morals, public policy and customs. Rule on the issue and explain. (2.5%)

[b] Suppose that the “Escalation Clause” instead reads: “B Bank hereby reserves the right to make reasonable increases in interest rates in accordance with bank policies as approved by the Monetary Board; Provided, there shall be corresponding reasonable decreases in interest rates as approved by the Monetary Board.” Would this be valid? Explain. (2.5%)

XIX

In 2015, R Corp., a domestic company that is wholly owned by Filipinos, filed its opposition to the applications for Mineral Production Sharing Agreements (MPSA) of O Corp., P Corp., and Q Corp. which were pending before the Panel of Arbitrators (POA) of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). The three corporations wanted to undertake exploration and mining activities in the province of Isabela. The oppositor alleged that at least 60% of the capital shareholdings of the applicants are owned by B Corp., a 100% Chinese corporation, in violation of Sec. 2, Art. XII of the Constitution. The applicants countered that they are qualified corporations as defined under the Philippine Mining Act of 1995 and the Foreign Investments Act of 1991 since B Corp. holds only 40% of the capital stocks in each of them and not 60% as alleged by R Corp.

The Summary of Significant Accounting Policies statement of B Corp. reveals that the joint venture agreements of B Corp. with Sigma Corp. and Delta Corp. involve the 0 Corp., P Corp., and Q Corp. The ownership of the layered corporations and joint venture agreements show that B Corp. practically exercises control over the 0, P and Q corporations. 0, P and Q corporations contend that the control test should be applied and its MPSA applications granted. On the other hand, R Corp. argues that the “grandfather rule” should be applied. Decide with reasons. (5%)

XX

Company X issued a Bank A Check No. 12345 in the amount of P500,000.00 payable to the Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) for the company’s taxes for the third quarter of 1997. The check was deposited with Bank B, the collecting bank with which the BIR has an account. The check was subsequently cleared and the amount of P500,000.00 was deducted from the company’s balance. Thereafter, Company X was notified by the BIR of its non-payment of its unpaid taxes despite the P500,000.00 debit from its account. This prompted the company to seek assistance from the proper authorities to investigate on the matter.

The results of the investigation disclosed that unknown then to Company X, its chief accountant Bonifacio Santos is part of a syndicate that devised a scheme to syphon its funds. It was discovered that though deposited, the check was never paid to the BIR but was passed on by Santos to Winston Reyes, Bank B’s branch manager and Santos’ co-conspirator. Instead of bringing the check to the clearing house, Reyes replaced Check No. 12345 with a worthless check bearing the same amount, and tampered documents to cover his tracks. No amount was then credited to the BIR. Meanwhile, Check No. 12345 was subsequently cleared and the amount therein credited into the accounts of fictitious persons, to be later withdrawn by Santos and Reyes.

Company X then sued Bank B for the amount of P500,000.00 representing the amount deducted from its account. Bank B interposed the defense that Company X was guilty of contributory negligence since its confidential employee Santos was an integral part of the scheme to divert the proceeds of Check No. 12345. Is Company X entitled to reimbursement from Bank B, the collecting bank? Explain. (5%)

-END-

2015 BAR EXAMINATIONS
MERCANTILE LAW
November 22, 2015 8:00 A.M. – 12:00 NN.
INSTRUCTIONS

1. This Questionnaire contains eight (8) pages including these Instructions pages. Check the number of pages and the page numbers at the upper right hand corner of each page of this Questionnaire and make sure it has the correct number of pages and their proper numbers.

There are 16 items (I to XVI) to be answered within/our (4) hours.

2. Read each question very carefully and write your answers in your Bar Examination Notebook in the same order the questions are posed. Write your answers only on the front, not the back, page of every sheet in your Notebook. Note well the allocated percentage points for each number, question, or sub-question. In your answers, use the numbering system in the questionnaire.

If the sheets provided in your Examination Notebook are not sufficient for your answers, use the back page of every sheet of your Examination Notebook, starting at the back page of the first sheet and the back of the succeeding sheets thereafter.

3. Answer the Essay questions legibly, clearly, and concisely. Start each number on a separate page. An answer to a sub-question under the same number may be written continuously on the same page and the immediately succeeding pages until completed.

Your answer should demonstrate your ability to analyze the facts presented by the question, to select the material from the immaterial facts, and to discern the points upon which the question turns. It should show your knowledge and understanding of the pertinent principles and theories of law involved and their qualifications and limitations. It should demonstrate your ability to apply the law to the given facts, to reason logically in a lawyer-like manner, and to form a sound conclusion from the given premises.

A mere “Yes” or “No” answer without any corresponding explanation or discussion will not be given any credit. Thus, always briefly but fully explain your answers although the question does not expressly ask for an explanation. At the same time, remember that a complete explanation does not require that you volunteer information or discuss legal doctrines that are not necessary or pertinent to the solution to the problem. You do not need to re-write or repeat the question in your Notebook.

4. Make sure you do not write your name or any extraneous note/s or distinctive marking/s on your Notebook that can serve as an identifying mark/s (such as names that are not in the given questions, prayers, or private notes to the Examiner).

Writing, leaving or making any distinguishing or identifying mark in the exam Notebook is considered cheating and can disqualify you for the Bar examinations.

You can use the questionnaire for notes you may wish/need to write during the examination.

YOU CAN BRING HOME THIS QUESTIONNAIRE OR SUBMIT IT TOGETHER WITH YOUR NOTEBOOK

JUSTICE TERESITA J. LEONARDO-DE CASTRO
Chairperson
2015 Bar Examinations

I.

A. Nadine has a checking account with Fair & Square Bank. One day, she lost her checkbook and the finder was able to forge her signature and encash the forged check. Will Nadine be able to recover the amount debited from her checking account from Fair & Square Bank? Justify your answer. (3%)

B. Is a manager’s check as good as cash? Why or why not? (2%)

C. When can you treat a bill of exchange as a promissory note? (3%)

II.

A. Novette entered into a contract for the purchase of certain office supplies. The goods were shipped. While in transit, the goods were insured by Novette. Does she have an insurable interest over the goods even before delivery of the same to her? Explain. (2%)

B. Will an insurance policy be binding even if the premium is unpaid? What if it were partially paid? (3%)

III.

A. Discuss the three-fold character of a bill of lading. (3%)

B. What is a “Jason clause” in a charter party? (2%)

C. Are common carriers liable for injuries to passengers even if they have observed ordinary diligence and care? Explain. (2%)

IV.

A. Maine Den, Inc. opened an irrevocable letter of credit with Fair Bank, in connection with Maine Den, Inc.’ s importation of spare parts for its textile mills. The imported parts were released to Maine Den, Inc. after it executed a trust receipt in favor of Fair Bank. When Maine Den, Inc. was unable to pay its obligation under the trust receipt, Fair Bank sued Maine Den, Inc. for estafa under the Trust Receipts Law. The court, however, dismissed the suit. Was the dismissal justified? Why or why not? (3%)

B. Does the rule “res perit domino” apply in trust receipt transactions? Explain. (2%)

V.

A. A standby letter of credit was issued by ABC Bank to secure the obligation of X Company to Y Company. Under the standby letter of credit, if there is failure on the part of X Company to perform its obligation, then Y Company will submit to ABC Bank a certificate of default (in the form prescribed under the standby letter of credit) and ABC Bank will have to pay Y Company the defaulted amount. Subsequently, Y Company submitted to ABC Bank a certificate of default notwithstanding the fact that X Company was not in default. Can ABC Bank refuse to honor the certificate of default? Explain. (3%)

B. Is the Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits of the International Chamber of Commerce applicable to commercial letters of credit issued by a domestic bank even if not expressly mentioned in such letters of credit? What is the basis for your answer? (3%)

VI.

A. DEF Corporation has retained surplus profits in excess of 100% of its paid-in capital stock. However, it is unable to declare dividends, because it had entered into a loan agreement with a certain creditor wherein the declaration of dividends is not allowed without the consent of such creditor. If DEF Corporation cannot obtain this consent, will it be justified in not declaring dividends to its stockholders? Explain. (3%)

B. What is “watered stock” and what is the legal consequence of the issuance of such stock? (3%)

VII.

A. A foreign company has been exporting goods to a Philippine company for several years now. When the Philippine company failed to pay the latest exportation, the foreign company sued to collect in the Philippines. The Philippine company interposed the defense that the foreign company was doing business in the Philippines without a license; hence, could not sue before a Philippine court. Is this defense tenable? Explain your answer. (3%)

B. Define:

1. Doctrine of apparent authority (2%)

2. Trust fund doctrine (2%)

VIII.

Barn filed an action to enjoin SN Company’s Board of Directors from selling a parcel of land registered in the corporation’s name, to compel the corporation to recognize Barn as a stockholder with 50 shares, to allow him to inspect the corporate books, and to claim damages against the corporation and its officers. Subsequently, the corporation and the individual defendants moved to dismiss the complaint since the corporation’s certificate of registration was revoked by the SEC during the pendency of Barn’s case on the ground of non-compliance with reportorial requirements. The special commercial court granted the motion and reasoned that only an action for liquidation of assets can be maintained when a corporation has been dissolved and Barn cannot seek reliefs which in effect lead to the continuation of the corporation’s business. The court also ruled that it lost jurisdiction over the intra-corporate controversy upon the dissolution of the corporation.

a.) Was the court correct? (3%)

b.) Four years later, SN Company files an action against Barn to recover corporate assets allegedly held by the latter for liquidation. Will this action prosper? (3%)

IX.

A. Able Corporation sold securities to 21 non-qualified buyers during a 15-month period, without registering the securities with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Did Able Corporation violate the Securities Regulation Code? Explain. (2%)

B. Securities issued by the Philippine government are “exempt securities” and, therefore, need not be registered with the Securities and Exchange Commission prior to their sale or offering to the public in the Philippines. What is the rationale behind this exemption? (2%)

C. Why is the Securities Regulation Code called a “truth in securities law”? (2%)

X.

Mr. and Mrs. Reyes invested their hard-earned savings in securities issued by LEAD Bank. After discovering that the securities sold to them were not registered with the SEC in violation of the Securities Regulation Code, the spouses Reyes filed a complaint for nullity of contract and for recovery of a sum of money with the RTC. LEAD Bank moved to dismiss the case on the ground that it is the SEC that has primary jurisdiction over actions involving violations of the Securities Regulation Code. If you were the judge, how would you rule on the motion to dismiss? (3%)

XI.

A. Why is the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas considered a lender of last resort? (2%)

B. Distinguish a conservator from a receiver of a bank. (2%)

C. What is insider trading? (2%)

XII.

A. Raymond invested his money in securities issued by the Philippine government, through his bank. Subsequently, the Bureau of Internal Revenue asked his bank to disclose his investments. His bank refused the request for disclosure on the ground that the investments are confidential under the Secrecy of Bank Deposits Law (Republic Act No. 1405, as amended). Is the bank’s refusal justified? Defend your answer. (2%)

B. First Bank received an order of garnishment over a client’s peso and dollar deposits in First Bank. Should First Bank comply with that order? Explain. (3%)

XIII.

A. A commercial bank wants to acquire shares in a cement manufacturing company. Do you think it can do that? Why or why not? (2%)

B. A court found the interest charged by a bank as excessive and unconscionable and struck down the contractual stipulation on interest. If you were the judge, what would you impose as the applicable interest rate? State your legal basis. (2%)

C. What is the single borrower’s limit? (2%)

XIV.

A. Differentiate trademark, copyright and patent from each other. (6%)

B. What is the doctrine of equivalents? (2%)

C. In what ways would a case for infringement of trademark be different from a case for unfair competition? (3%)

XV.

CHEN, Inc., a Taiwanese company, is a manufacturer of tires with the mark Light Year. From 2009 to 2014, Clark Enterprises, a Philippine registered corporation, imported tires from CHEN, Inc. under several sales contracts and sold them here in the Philippines. In 2015, CHEN, Inc. filed a trademark application with the Intellectual Property Office (IPO) for the mark Light Year to be used for tires. The IPO issued CHEN, Inc. a certificate of registration (COR) for said mark. Clark Enterprises sought the cancellation of the COR and claimed it had a better right to register the mark Light Year. CHEN, Inc. asserted that it was the owner of the mark and Clark Enterprises was a mere distributor. Clark Enterprises argued that there was no evidence on record that the tires it imported from CHEN, Inc. bore the mark Light Year and Clark Enterprises was able to prove that it was the first to use the mark here in the Philippines. Decide the case. (4%)

XVI.

A. On the anti-money laundering laws:

1. What is the distinction between a “covered transaction report” and a “suspicious transaction report”? (2%)

2. Does the Anti-Money Laundering Council have the authority to freeze deposits? Explain. (2%)

B. On foreign investments:

1. A foreign company has a distributor in the Philippines. The latter acts in his own name and account. Will this distributorship be considered as doing business by the foreign company in the Philippines? (3%)

2. ABC Corporation was organized in Malaysia but has a branch in the Philippines. It is entirely owned by Filipino citizens. Can you consider ABC Corporation a Philippine national? (2%)

—ooo0ooo—

2014 BAR EXAMINATIONS
COMMERCIAL LAW
October 19, 2014 8:00 A.M.- 12:00 N.N.
INSTRUCTIONS

1. This Questionnaire contains FOURTEEN (14) pages including these Instructions pages. Check the number of pages and the page numbers at the upper right hand corner of each page of this Questionnaire and make sure it has the correct number of pages and their proper numbers.

There are TWENTY-NINE (29) Essay and Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) to be answered within four (4) hours.

The essay portion contains questions that are equivalent to not less than 80% of the whole examination, while the MCQ portion contains questions equivalent to not more than 20%.

2. Read each question very carefully and write your answers in your Bar Examination Notebook in the same order the questions are posed. Write your answers only on the front,not the back, page of every sheet in your Notebook. Note well the allocated percentage points for each number, question, or sub-question. In your answers, use the numbering system in the questionnaire.

If the sheets provided in your Examination Notebook are not sufficient for your answers, use the back page of every sheet of your Examination Notebook, starting at the back page of the first sheet and the back of the succeeding sheets thereafter.

3. Answer the Essay questions legibly, clearly, and concisely. Start each number on a separate page. An answer to a sub-question under the same number may be written continuously on the same page and the immediately succeeding pages until completed.

Your answer should demonstrate your ability to analyze the facts presented by the question, to select the material from the immaterial facts, and to discern the points upon which the question turns. It should show your knowledge and understanding of the pertinent principles and theories of law involved and their qualifications and limitations. It should demonstrate your ability to apply the law to the given facts, and to reason logically in a lawyer-like manner to a sound conclusion from the given premises.

A mere “Yes” or “No” answer without any corresponding explanation or discussion will not be given any credit. Thus, always briefly but fully explain your answers although the question does not expressly ask for an explanation. At the same time, remember that a complete explanation does not require that you volunteer information or discuss legal doctrines that are not necessary or pertinent to the solution to the problem. You do not need to re-write or repeat the question in your Notebook.

4. MCQs are to be answered by writing in your Notebook the capital letter A, B, C, or D corresponding to your chosen answer. There is only one correct answer to every MCQ; choose the BEST answer from among the offered choices.

5. Make sure you do not write your name or any extraneous note/s or distinctive marking/s on your Notebook that can serve as an identifying mark/s (such as names that are not in the given questions, prayers, or private notes to the Examiner).

Writing, leaving or making any distinguishing or identifying mark in the exam Notebook is considered cheating and can disqualify you for the Bar examinations.

You can use the questionnaire for notes you may wish/need to write during the examination.

YOU CAN BRING HOME THIS QUESTIONNAIRE OR HAND IT TOGETHER WITH YOUR NOTEBOOK

J. DIOSDADO M. PERALTA
Chairman
2014 Bar Examinations

I.

Carlo and Bianca met in the La Boracay festivities. Immediately, they fell in love with each other and got married soon after. They have been cohabiting blissfully as husband and wife, but they did not have any offspring. As the years passed by, Carlo decided to take out an insurance on Bianca’slife for P1,000,000.00 with him (Carlo) as sole beneficiary, given that he did not have a steady source of income and he always depended on Bianca both emotionally and financially. During the term of the insurance, Bianca died of what appeared to bea mysterious cause so that Carlo immediately requested for an autopsy tobe conducted. It was established that Bianca died of a natural cause. More than that, it was also established that Bianca was a transgender all along – a fact unknown to Carlo. Can Carlo claim the insurance benefit? (5%)

II.

Bong bought 300 bags of rice from Ben for P300,000.00. As payment, Bong indorsed to Bena Bank of the Philippine Islands (BPI) check issued by Baby in the amount of P300,000.00. Upon presentment for payment, the BPI check was dishonored because Baby’s account from which it was drawn has been closed. To replace the dishonored check, Bong indorsed a crossed Development Bank of the Philippines (DBP) check issued also by Baby for P300,000.00. Again, the check was dishonored because of insufficient funds. Ben sued Bong and Baby on the dishonored BPI check. Bong interposed the defense that the BPI check was discharged by novation when Ben accepted the crossed DBP check as replacement for the BPI check. Bong cited Section 119 of the Negotiable Instruments Law which provides that a negotiable instrument is discharged “by any other act which will discharge a simple contractfor the payment of money.” Is Bong correct? (4%)

III.

Under the Financial Rehabilitation and Insolvency Act (FRIA), the filing of a petition for voluntary rehabilitation must be approved by: (1%)

(A) a majority vote of the Board of Directors and authorized by the vote of the stockholders representing at least a majority of the outstanding capital stock

(B) a majority vote of the Board of Directors and authorized by the vote of the stockholders representing at least two-thirds of the outstanding capital stock

(C) two-thirds vote of the Board of Directors and authorized by the vote of the stockholders representing at least a majority of the outstanding capital stock

(D) two-thirds vote of the Board of Directors and authorized by the vote of the stockholders representing at least two-thirds of the outstanding capital stock

IV.

DC is a unit owner of Medici Condominium located in Pasig City. On September 7, 2011, Medici Condominium Corp. (Medici) demanded from DC payment for alleged unpaid association dues and assessments amounting to P195,000.00. DC disputed the claim, saying that he paid all dues as shown by the fact that he was previously elected as Director and President of Medici. Medici, on the other hand, claimed that DC’s obligation was a carry-over of his obligations to the condominium developer, Medici Construction Corporation. Consequently, DCwas prevented from exercising his right to vote and be voted for during the 2011 election of Medici’s Board of Directors. This prompted DC to file a complaint for damages before the Special Commercial Court of Pasig City. Medici filed a motion to dismiss on the ground that the court has no jurisdiction over the intra-corporate dispute which the Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB) has exclusive jurisdiction over. Is Medici correct? (4%)

V.

A corporation organized under the Corporation Code commences to have corporate existence and juridical personality and is deemed incorporated: (1%)

(A) from the date the application for incorporation is filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

(B) from the date the SEC issues a certificate of incorporation under its official seal

(C) thirty (30) days after the date the application for incorporation is filed with the SEC

(D) thirty (30) days after the datethe SEC issues a certificate of incorporation under its official seal

VI.

On May 26, 2014, Jess insured with Jack Insurance (Jack) his 2014 Toyota Corolla sedan under a comprehensive motor vehicle insurance policy for one year. On July 1, 2014, Jess’ car was unlawfully taken. Hence, he immediately reported the theft to the Traffic Management Command (TMC) of the Philippine National Police (PNP), which made Jess accomplish a complaint sheet as part of its procedure. In the complaint sheet, Jess alleged that a certain Ric Silat(Silat) took possession of the subject vehicle to add accessories and improvements thereon. However, Silat failed to return the subject vehicle within the agreed 3-day period. As a result, Jess notified Jack of his claim for reimbursement of the value of the lost vehicle under the insurance policy. Jack refused to pay claiming that there is no theft as Jess gave Silat lawful possession of the car. Is Jack correct? (4%)

VII.

Jinggy went to Kluwer University(KU) in Germany for his doctorate degree (Ph.D.). He completed his degree with the highest honors in the shortest time. When he came back, he decided to set-up his own graduate school in his hometown in Zamboanga. After seeking free legal advice from his high-flying lawyer-friends, he learned that the Philippines follows the territoriality principle in trademark law, i.e., trademark rights are acquired through valid registration in accordance with the law. Forth with, Jinggy named his school the Kluwer Graduate School of Business of Mindanao and immediately secured registration with the Bureau of Trademarks. KU did not like the unauthorized use of its name by its top alumnus no less. KU sought your help. What advice can you give KU? (4%)

VIII.

As a rule, an insurance contract is consensual and voluntary. The exception is in the case of: (1%)

(A) Inland Marine Insurance

(B) Industrial Life Insurance

(C) Motor Vehicle Liability Insurance

(D) Life Insurance

IX.

On February 21, 2013, Barrack entered into a contract of insurance with Matino Insurance Company (Matino) involving a motor vehicle. The policy obligates Matino to pay Barrack the amount of Six Hundred Thousand Pesos (P600,000.00) in case of loss or damage to said vehicle during the period covered, which is from February 26, 2013 to February 26, 2014.

On April 16, 2013, at about 9:00 a.m., Barrack instructed his driver, JJ, to bring the motor vehicle to a near by auto shop for tune-up. However, JJno longer returned and despite diligent efforts to locate the said vehicle, the efforts proved futile. Resultantly, Barrack promptly notified Matino of the said loss and demanded payment of the insurance proceeds of P600,000.00.

In a letter dated July 5, 2013. Matino denied the claim, reasoning as stated in the contract that “the company shall not be liable for any malicious damage caused by the insured, any member of his family or by a person in the insured’s service. Is Matino correct in denying the claim? (4%)

X.

A person is said to have an insurable interest in the subject matter insured where he has a relation or connection with, or concern in it that he will derive pecuniary benefit or advantage from its preservation. Which among the following subject matters is not considered insurable? (1%)

(A) A partner in a firm on its future profits

(B) A general creditor on debtor’s property

(C) A judgment creditor on debtor’s property

(D) A mortgage creditor on debtor’s mortgaged property

XI.

PA Assurance (PA) was incorporated in 1980 toengage in the sale of pre-need educational plans. It sold open-ended educational plans which guaranteed the payment of tuition and other fees to planholders irrespective of the cost at the time of availment. Italso engaged in the sale of fixed value plans which guaranteed the payment of a pre-determined amount to planholders. In 1982, PAwas among the country’s top corporations. However, it subsequently suffered financial difficulties.

On September 8, 2005, PA filed a Petition for Corporate Rehabilitation before the Regional Trial Court (RTC) of Makati City. On October 17, 2005, ten (10) plan holders filed an Opposition and Motion to Exclude Planholders from Stay Order on the ground that planholders are not creditors as they (planholders) have a trust relationship with PA. Are the planholders correct? (4%)

XII.

To constitute a quorum for the transaction of corporate business, only a majority of the number of Board of Directors is required: (1%)

(A) as fixed by the corporate by-laws

(B) as fixed in the articles of incorporation

(C) actually serving in the board

(D) actually serving in the board but constituting a quorum

XIII.

Pursuant to its By-Laws, Soei Corporation’s Board of Directors created an Executive Committee to manage the affairs of the corporation in between board meetings. The Board of Directors appointed the following members of the Executive Committee: the President, Sarah L; the Vice President, Jane L; and, a third member from the board, Juan Riles. On December 1, 2013, the Executive Committee, with Sarah L and Jane L present, met and decided on the following matters:

1. Purchase of a delivery van for use in the corporation’s retail business;

2. Declaration and approval of the 13th month bonus;

3. Purchase of an office condominium unit at the Fort; and

4. Declaration of P10.00 per share cash dividend.

Are the actions of the Executive Committee valid? (4%)

XIV.

On September 25, 2013, Danny Marcial (Danny) procured an insurance on his life with a face value of P5,000,000.00 from RN Insurance Company (RN), with his wife Tina Marcial(Tina) as sole beneficiary. On the same day, Danny issued an undated check to RN for the full amount of the premium. On October 1, 2013, RN issued the policy covering Danny’s life insurance. On October 5, 2013, Dannymet a tragic accident and died. Tina claimed the insurance benefit, but RN was quick to deny the claim because at the time of Danny’s death, the check was not yet encashed and therefore the premium remained unpaid.

Is RN correct? Will your answer be the same if the check is dated October 15, 2013? (4%)

XV.

A, B, C, D, and Ewere members of the 2003-2004 Board of Directors of FLP Corporation. At the election for the 2004-2005 Board of Directors, not one of them was elected. They filed in court a derivative suit on behalf of FLP Corporation against the newly-elected members of the Board of Directors. They questioned the validity of the election as it was allegedly marred by lack of quorum, and prayed for the nullification of the said election. The 2004-2005 Board of Directorsmoved to dismiss the complaint because the derivative suit is not proper. Decide. (4%)

XVI.

In intellectual property cases, fraudulent intent is not an element of the cause of action except in cases involving: (1%)

(A) trademark infringement

(B) copyright infringement

(C) patent infringement

(D) unfair competition

XVII.

On December 1, 2010, Kore A Corporationshipped from South Korea to LT Corporation in Manila some 300,000 sheets of high-grade special steel. The shipment was insured against all risks by NA Insurance(NA). The carrying vessel arrived at the Portof Manila on January 10, 2011. When the shipment was discharged, it was noted that 25,000 sheets were damaged and in bad order. The entire shipment was turned over to the custody of ATI, the arrastre operator, on January 21, 2011 for storage and safekeeping, pending its withdrawal by the consignee’s authorized customs broker, RVM.

On January 26 and 29, 2011, the subject shipment was withdrawn by RVM from the custody of ATI. On January 29, 2011, prior to the withdrawal of the last batch of the shipment, a joint inspection of the cargo was conducted per the Request for Bad Order Survey (RBO) dated January 28, 2011. The examination report showed that 30,000 sheets of steel were damaged and in bad order.

NA Insurance paid LT Corporationthe amount of P30,000,000.00 for the 30,000 sheets that were damaged, as shown in the Subrogation Receipt dated January 13, 2013. Thereafter, NA Insurance demanded reparation against ATI for the goods damaged in its custody, in the amount of P5,000,00.00. ATI refused to pay claiming that the claim was already barred by the statute of limitations. ATI alleged that the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act (COGSA) applies in this case since the goods were shipped from a foreign port to the Philippines. NA Insurance claims that the COGSA does not apply, since ATIis not a shipper or carrier. Who is correct? (5%)

XVIII.

Skechers Corporation sued Inter-Pacific for trademark infringement, claiming that Inter-Pacificused Skechers’ registered “S” logo mark on Inter-Pacific’s shoe products without its consent. Skechers has registered the trademark “SKECHERS” and the trademark “S” (with an oval design) with the Intellectual Property Office (IPO).

In its complaint, Skechers points out the following similarities: the color scheme of the blue, white and gray utilized by Skechers. Even the design and “wave-like” pattern of the mid-sole and outer sole of Inter Pacific’s shoes are very similar to Skechers’ shoes, if not exact patterns thereof. On the side of Inter-Pacific’s shoes, near the upper part, appears the stylized “S” placed in the exact location as that of the stylized “S” the Skechers shoes. On top of the “tongue” of both shoes, appears the stylized “S” in practically the same location and size.

In its defense, Inter-Pacific claims that under the Holistic Test, the following dissimilarities are present: the mark “S” found in Strong shoes is not enclosed in an “oval design”; the word “Strong” is conspicuously placed at the backside and insoles; the hang tags labels attached to the shoes bear the word “Strong” for Inter-Pacific and “Skechers U.S.A.” for Skechers; and, Strong shoes are modestly priced compared to the costs of Skechers shoes.

Under the foregoing circumstances, which is the proper test to be applied – Holistic or Dominancy Test? Decide. (4%)

XIX.

Guetze and his wife have three (3) children: Neymar, 25, who is now based in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Muelter, 23, who has migrated to Munich, Germany; and James, 21, who resides in Bogota, Colombia. Neymar and Muelter have since renounced their Philippine citizenship in favor of their country of residence. Nearing 70 years old, Guetze decided to incorporate his business in Binondo, Manila. He asked his wife and three (3) children to act as incorporators with one (1) share of stock each, while he owned 999,996 shares of the 1,000,000 shares of the capital stock. (6%)

(A) Assuming all other requirements are met, should the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) accept or reject the Articles of Incorporation? Why?

(B) Being the control freak and micro-manager that he is, Guetze asked you – his astute legal adviser – if he can serve as Chairman of the Board of Directors, as President, and as General Manager of the corporation, all at the same time. Please advise Guetze.

(C) Assuming the corporation has beenproperly registered, may the Articles of Incorporation now beamended to reduce the number of directors to two (2) – Guetze and his wife– to reflect the real owners of the shares of stock?

XX.

On May 13, 1996, PAM, Inc. obtained a P15,000,000.00 fire insurance policy from Ilocano Insurance covering its machineries and equipment effective for one (1) yearor until May 14, 1997. The policy expressly stated that the insured properties were located at “Sanyo Precision Phils. Building, Phase III, Lots 4 and 6, Block 15, PEZA, Rosario, Cavite.” Before its expiration, the policy was renewed on “as is” basis for another year or until May 13, 1998. The subject properties were later transferred to Pace Factory also in PEZA. On October 12, 1997, during the effectivity of the renewed policy, a fire broke out at the Pace Factory which totally burned the insured properties.

The policy forbade the removal of the insured properties unless sanctioned by Ilocano. Condition 9(c) of the policy provides that “the insurance ceases to attach as regards the property affected unless the insured, before the occurrence of any loss or damage, obtains the sanction of the company signified by endorsement upon the policy x x x (c) if the property insured is removed to any building or place other than in that which is herein stated to be insured.” PAM claims that it has substantially complied with notifying Ilocano through its sister company, the RBC, which, in fact, referred PAM to Ilocano for the insurance coverage. Is Ilocano liable under the policy? (4%)

XXI.

On July 3, 1993, Delia Sotero (Sotero) took out a life insurance policy from Ilocos Bankers Life Insurance Corporation (Ilocos Life) designating Creencia Aban(Aban), her niece, as her beneficiary. Ilocos Life issued Policy No. 747, with a face value of P100,000.00, in Sotero’s favor on August 30, 1993, after the requisite medical examination and payment of the premium.

On April 10, 1996, Sotero died. Aban filed a claim for the insurance proceeds on July 9, 1996. Ilocos Life conducted an investigation into the claim and came out withthe following findings:

1. Soterodid not personally apply for insurance coverage, as she was illiterate.

2. Soterowas sickly since 1990.

3. Soterodid not have the financial capability to pay the premium on the policy.

4. Soterodid not sign the application for insurance.

5. Aban was the one who filed the insurance application and designated herself as the beneficiary.

For the above reasons and claiming fraud, Ilocos Life denied Aban’s claim on April 16, 1997, but refunded the premium paid on the policy. (6%)

(A) May Sotero validly designate her niece as beneficiary?

(B) May the incontestability period set in even in cases of fraud as alleged in this case?

(C) Is Aban entitled to claim the proceeds under the policy?

XXII.

Paul George Pua (Pua) filed a complaint for a sum of money against the spouses Benito and Caroline James (Spouses James). In the complaint, Pua prayed that the defendants pay Pua the amount of P8,500,000.00, covered by a check. Pua asserts that defendants owed him a sum of money way back in 1988 for which the Spouses James gave him several checks. These checks, however, had all been dishonored and Pua has not been paid the amount of the loan plus the agreed interest. In 1996, the Spouses James approached Pua to get the computation of their liability including the 2% compounded interest. After bargaining to lower the amount of their liability, the Spouses James gave Puaa postdated check bearing the discounted amount of P8,500,000.00. Like the 1988 checks, the drawee bank likewise dishonored this check. To prove his allegations, Pua submitted the original copies of the 17 checks issued by Caroline in 1988 and the check issued in 1996, Manila trust Check No. 750. The Spouses James, on the other hand, completely denied the existence of the debt asserting that they had never approached Pua to borrow money in 1988 or in 1996. They assert, instead, that Pua is simply acting at the instance of his sister, Lilian, to file a false charge against them using a check left to fund a gambling business previously operated by Lilian and Caroline. Decide. (5%)

XXIII.

What vote is needed to consider every decision to be a valid corporate act? (1%)

(A) a majority of the directors present at the meeting

(B) two-thirds of the directors present at the meeting

(C) a majority of the directors present at the meeting at which there is a quorum

(D) two-thirds of the directors present at the meeting at which there is a quorum

XXIV.

A criminal complaint for violation of B.P. 22 was filed by Foton Motors (Foton), an entity engaged in the business of car dealership, against Pura Felipe (Pura) with the Office of the City Prosecutor of Quezon City. The Office found probable cause to indict Pura and filed an information before the Metropolitan Trial Court (MeTC) of Quezon City, for her issuance of a postdated check in the amount of P1,020,000.00 which was subsequently dishonored upon presentment due to “Stop Payment.”

Pura issued the check because her son, Freddie, attracted by a huge discount of P220,000.00, purchased a Foton Blizzard 4×2 from Foton. The term of the transaction was Cash-on-Delivery and no downpayment was required. The car was delivered on May 14, 1997, but Freddie failed to pay upon delivery. Despite non-payment, Freddie took possession of the vehicle.

Pura was eventually acquitted of the charge of violating B.P. 22 but was found civilly liable for the amount of the check plus legal interest. Pura appealed the decision as regards the civil liability, claiming that there was no privity of contract between Foton and Pura. No civil liability could be adjudged against her because of her acquittal from the criminal charge. It was Freddie who was civilly liable to Foton, Pura claimed. Pura added that she could not be an accommodation party either because she only came in after Freddie failed to pay the purchase price, or six (6) months after the execution of the contract between Foton and Freddie. Her liability was limited to her act of issuing a worthless check, but by her acquittal in the criminal charge, there was no more basis for her to be held civilly liable to Foton. Pura’s act of issuing the subject check did not, by itself, assume the obligation of Freddie to Foton or automatically make her a party to the contract. Is Pura liable? (5%)

XXV.

In an action for collection of a sum of money, the Regional Trial Court (RTC) of Makati City issued a decision finding D-Securities, Inc. liable to Rehouse Corporation for P10,000,000.00. Subsequently, the writ of execution was issued but returned unsatisfied because D-Securities had no more assets to satisfy the judgment. Rehouse moved for an Alias Writ of Execution against Fairfield Bank (FB), the parent company of D-Securities. FB opposed the motion on the grounds that it is a separate entity and that it was never made a party to the case. The RTC granted the motion and issued the Alias Writ of Execution. In its Resolution, the RTC relied on the following facts: 499,995 out of the 500,000 outstanding shares of stocks of D-Securities are owned by FB; FB had actual knowledge of the subject matter of litigation as the lawyers who represented D-Securities are also the lawyers of FB. As an alter ego, there is no need for a finding of fraud or illegality before the doctrine of piercing the veil of corporate fiction can be applied. The RTC ratiocinated that being one and the same entity in the eyes of the law, the service of summons upon D-Securities has bestowed jurisdiction over both the parent and wholly-owned subsidiary. Is the RTC correct? (4%)

XXVI.

DMP Corporation (DMP) obtained a loan of P20 million from National Bank (NB) secured by a real estate mortgage over a 63,380-square-meter land situated in Cabanatuan City. Due to the Asian Economic Crisis, DMP experienced liquidity problems disenabling it from paying its loan on time. For that reason, NB sought the extra judicial foreclosure of the said mortgage by filing a petition for sale on June 30, 2003. On September 4, 2003, the mortgaged property was sold at public auction, which was eventually awarded to NBas the highest bidder. That same day, the Sheriff executed a Certificate of Sale in favor of NB.

On October 21, 2003, DMP filed a Petition for Rehabilitation before the Regional Trial Court (RTC). Pursuant to this, a Stay Order was issued by the RTC on October 27, 2003.

On the other hand, NB caused the recording of the Sheriff’s Certificate of Sale on December 3, 2003 with the Register of Deeds of Cabanatuan City. NB executed an Affidavit of Consolidation of Ownership and had the same annotated on the title of DMP. Consequently, the Register of Deeds cancelled DMP’s title and issued a new title in the name of NB on December 10, 2003.

NB also filed on March 17, 2004 an Ex-Parte Petition for Issuance of Writ of Possession before the RTC of Cabanatuan City. After hearing, the RTC issued on September 6, 2004 an Order directing the Issuance of the Writ of Possession, which was issued on October 4, 2004.

DMP claims that all subsequent actions pertaining to the Cabanatuan property should have been held in abeyance after the Stay Order was issued by the rehabilitation court. Is DMP correct? (4%)

XXVII.

ELP Insurance, Inc. issued Marine Policy No. 888 in favor of FCL Corp. to insure the shipment of 132 bundles of electric copper cathodes against all risks. Subsequently, the cargoes were shipped on board the vessel “M/V Menchu” from Leyte to Pier 10, North Harbor, Manila.

Upon arrival, FCL Corp. engaged the services of CGM, Inc. for the release and withdrawal of the cargoes from the pier and the subsequent delivery to its warehouses/plants in Valenzuela City. The goods were loaded on board twelve (12) trucks owned by CGM, Inc., driven by its employed drivers and accompanied by its employed truck helpers. Of the twelve (12) trucks en routeto Valenzuela City, only eleven (11) reached the destination. One (1) truck, loaded with eleven (11) bundles of copper cathodes, failed to deliver its cargo.

Because of this incident, FCL Corp. filed with ELP Insurance, Inc. a claim for insurance indemnity in the amount of P1,500,000.00. After the requisite investigation and adjustment, ELP Insurance, Inc. paid FCL Corp. the amount of P1,350,000.00 as insurance indemnity.

ELP Insurance, Inc., thereafter, filed a complaint for damages against CGM, Inc. before the Regional Trial Court (RTC), seeking reimbursement of the amount it had paid to FCL Corp. for the loss of the subject cargo. CGM, Inc. denied the claim on the basis that it is not privy to the contract entered into by and between FCL Corp. and ELP Insurance, Inc., and hence, it is not liable therefor. If you are the judge, how will you decide the case? (4%)

XXVIII.

Which of the following instruments is negotiable if all the other requirements of negotiability are met? (1%)

(A) A promissory note with promise to pay out of the U.S. Dollar account of the maker in XYZ Bank

(B) A promissory note which designates the U.S. Dollar currency in which payment is to be made

(C) A promissory note which contains in addition a promise to paint the portrait of the bearer

(D) A promissory note made payable to the order of Jose Cruz or Josefa Cruz

XXIX.

KKis from Bangkok, Thailand. She studies medicine in the Pontifical University of Santo Tomas (UST). She learned that the same foreign books prescribed in UST are 40-50% cheaper in Bangkok. So she ordered 50 copies of each book for herself and her classmates and sold the books at 20% less than the price in the Philippines. XX, the exclusive licensed publisher of the books in the Philippines, sued KK for copyright infringement. Decide. (4%)

—oo0ooo—

 

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